Working with BMP180 Pressure Sensor and ATtiny85 using USITWIX Library

USITWIX – Using USI as TWI / I2C

In our previous post “USITWIX – Using UART as TWI / I2C” we looked at the USITWIX library that implements TWI / I2C communication between а  ATtiny85 micro-controller and peripherals. Let’s see now how we can use that library to work with the BOSCH BMP180 atmospheric pressure sensor and a ATtiny85/Tinusaur boards.

The BMP180tiny Library

So, we wrote a simple library (called it BMP180tiny) that uses USITWIX to read and write from/to BMP180 registers, retrieve the measurements, do some additional calculations and produce result suitable for use in an application.

Setup

Here’s the setup:

BMP180 with Tinusaur ATtiny85 USITWIX

NOTE: We need the USB-to-Serial just for debugging – it isn’t essential part of the setup.

Here is a short fragment of initialization code

uint8_t bmp180_result;
if ((bmp180_result = bmp180_init()) != BMP180_RESULT_SUCCESS)
{
  return -1;
}

And here is now to use the functions …

// Read raw temperature
uint16_t temp_rawdata = bmp180_read_temp_raw();

uint16_t temp_10x = bmp180_read_temp10x();
// temp_10x holds the result dC, i.e. 123 means 12.3 Celsius

// Read raw pressure
int32_t pres_rawdata = bmp180_read_pres_raw();

// Read pressure
int32_t pres = bmp180_read_pres();
int16_t pres_hpa = pres / 100;
// pres_hpa holds the result in hPa (hectopascals)

// Read altitude
int32_t alt_x = bmp180_read_alt_x();
int16_t alt_dm = alt_x / 100;
// alt_dm holds the result in dm (decimeters)

The debugging output would look something like this …

t:raw=28622; t(dC)=253; p:raw/hi=5; p:raw/lo=4940; p(Pa)/hi=1; p(Pa)/lo=33948; p(hPa)=994; a/lo=24222; a(dm)=1552;
t:raw=28624; t(dC)=253; p:raw/hi=5; p:raw/lo=4964; p(Pa)/hi=1; p(Pa)/lo=33933; p(hPa)=994; a/lo=24307; a(dm)=1553;
t:raw=28623; t(dC)=253; p:raw/hi=5; p:raw/lo=4951; p(Pa)/hi=1; p(Pa)/lo=33939; p(hPa)=994; a/lo=22619; a(dm)=1536;
t:raw=28624; t(dC)=253; p:raw/hi=5; p:raw/lo=4942; p(Pa)/hi=1; p(Pa)/lo=33940; p(hPa)=994; a/lo=24560; a(dm)=1556;

NOTE: This is generated using OWOWOD library and hardware (not required by the library itself to work)

References

The source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/tinusaur/bmp180tiny.
— The library is in the “bmp180tiny” folder.
— A sample code could found in the “bmp180tiny_test1” folder.

The page about BMP180tiny and articles about BMP180tiny.

The page about USITWIX and articles about USITWIX.

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The OWOWOD Library

OWOWOD is One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging library. It allows you to output text from the Tinusaur (ATtiny85 microcontroller or other similar), though USB-to-Serial or TTL converter (based on PL2303, CH340G or similar) and to the computer screen using COM port monitoring tool.

Why one would need something like that?

I would’ve been nice if it was possible to write something li this …

debugging_print("working, x=%i", x);

… and see the output on a computer. Great for debugging and other things.

Unfortunately there is no easy way of doing that – in fact not possible with the standard tools used to work with the ATtiny85. The problem is this: (1) those micro-controllers have too few I/O ports; and (2) most of the programmers (ex.: USBasp) do not offer that kind of communication between the micro-controller and the computer, i.e. there is no 2-way communication.

USB to Serial TTL

There are some solution and the OWOWOD library is just one of them. It uses an additional hardware component – USB-to-Serial converter also known as USB TTL Converter. They are very inexpensive, easy to find and work with.

The OWOWOD Library could do that.

Tinusaur connected to USB-to-Serial PL2303 using OWOWODFor this to work we need …

  • Micro-controller
  • USB-to-Serial converter
  • Computer

The Library works like this …

  • When you use a library function like owowod_print_char(‘U’) it will start sending sending the bits of the ‘U’ byte (hex: 0x55, bin: 01010101) in series, i.e. one bit after another, through one of the microcontroller pins – for instance PB3.
  • At the other end of the wire there is USB-to-Serial converter that will take the individual 01010101 bits and re-compose them back into one byte as 0x55.
  • Then the USB-to-Serial converter will send that ‘U’ byte (0x55) to the computer USB port.
  • The computer sees the USB-to-Serial as a Serial COM Port port, so it reads that ‘U’ byte.
  • Using another program on the computer we get that ‘U’ byte and show it on the screen.

It works similarly for whole strings and other data.

Let’s take a look at some usage examples:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#define OWOWOD_PORT PB3
#include "../owowod/owowod.h"
int main(void) {
    owowod_init();
    owowod_print_char('U');
    owowod_print_string("Hello!\r\n");
    owowod_print_numdec(1);
    owowod_print_numdecp(2);
    owowod_print_numdecu(123);
    owowod_print_numdecup(456);
    return 0;
}

Always initialize with owowod_init() function.

You can print char, string but also decimal signed and unsigned integer numbers.

The decimal numbers are 16-bit integers.

The owowod_print_numdecp() and owowod_print_numdecup() functions print left padded numbers – that means there will be some spaces on the left as if the numbers are right aligned. Like this …

    12
   345
 67890
    -2
   -34
-56789

Because this would be used for debugging in most of the cases there are some helpful definitions for that purpose in the “debugging.h” file.

Here is an example of how to use it …

#define F_CPU 1000000UL
#include <stdint.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#define OWOWOD_PORT PB3
#include "../owowod/owowod.h"
#include "../owowod/debugging.h"
int main(void) {
    DEBUGGING_INIT();
    DEBUGGING_NUMDEC(-123);
    DEBUGGING_NUMDECP(-4567);
    DEBUGGING_NUMDECU(123);
    DEBUGGING_NUMDECUP(4567);
    DEBUGGING_STRING("Hello!");
    DEBUGGING_STRINGLN("Hi!");
    DEBUGGING_VAR("X", 1);
    DEBUGGING_VARU("Y", 23);
    DEBUGGING_ERROR(4, "Connect");
    return 0;
}

DEBUGGING_STRINGLN adds CRLF new line at the end.

DEBUGGING_VAR and DEBUGGING_VARU print variable name and then the value.

DEBUGGING_ERROR prints the error code then the message.

hercules setup serial

To see the results we need a program that will run on a computer and show on the screen the information that comes through the serial port. There are many programs that could do that. One particularly simple to use is the Hercules Setup utility by HW group – it is just one EXE file that you run – that’s it.

The OWOWOD has its own page, it is at:
https://tinusaur.org/projects/owowod/

This library was developed with and tested on the following microcontrollers: ATtiny85, ATtiny45, ATtiny25 but should also work on other tinyAVR chips.

The library was tested to work with following USB-to-Serial converters: PL2303, CH340G.

Source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/tinusaur/owowod.

References

There are many project in the Internet that solve the same or similar problems and this article http://www.ernstc.dk/arduino/tinycom.html that points to some of them:

On eBay: USB to Serial TTL converter – to transfer the debugging output from the ATtiny micro-controller to the computer.

Here are links to some of the posts related to this library:

 

OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 3)

tinusaur board schematics owowod

It is time now to write a library that will use the Debugging Output.

In the previous 2 articles about OWOWOD we managed to generate proper serial signal and start sending characters out observing  the result on an oscilloscope.

(see previous articles Part 1 and Part 2 for reference)

The functions we have so far are:

  • void owowod_init(void)
    initializes the output port that will be used for debugging.
  • void owowod_delay(void)
    implements short delay (empty loops) equivalent of one bit transmitted over the wire.
  • void owowod_print_char(uint8_t c)
    output one byte (one character) over the debugging wire.

In order to test those functions we need to connect the generated output serial signal to the computer through a standard serial port – in our particular case that will be a USB to Serial converter. For this we need 2 cables – one for the common ground (usually black in color) and another one for the signal. On the micro-controller side any port that is available for output could be used – PB3 of the ATtiny85 is a good choice to run our tests. The output should be connected to the RxD pin of the USB-to-Serial converter.

Another function that we definitely need is such that can print string of characters. This is pretty simple …

void owowod_print_string(char *s) {
    while (*s) {
        owowod_print_char(*s++);
    }
}

Now we need to run some tests. For that we need a program that will run on the computer and show on the screen the information that comes through the serial port. There are many programs that could be used for that purpose. One particularly simple to use is the Hercules Setup utility by HW group – it is just one EXE file that you run – that’s it.

hercules setup serial

Here are few simple steps to make it work properly:

  • Choose the “Serial” tab.
  • Choose the proper Serial port name, e.g. COM4 – you can obtain that information from Windows Device Manager.
  • Make sure you use the default connection parameters – 9600 bps / 8 bit / no-parity.
  • Open the port to start receiving.

Running the a simple testing program …

#define OWOWOD_PORT PB3
#include "owowod.h"
int main(void)
{
    owowod_init();
    while (1) {
        owowod_print_string("Hello! How are you? Good-bye. :)\n\r");
        _delay_ms(2000);
    }
    return (0);
}

… should output some text on the screen – every 2 seconds.

To make this library more useful we also need a way to print numbers.

Before that we need another function that will convert the value in an integer variable to a string …

#include <stdint.h>

#define USINT2DECASCII_MAX_DIGITS 5

uint8_t usint2decascii(uint16_t num, char* buffer)
{
    const unsigned short powers[] = { 10000u, 1000u, 100u, 10u, 1u };
    char digit;
    uint8_t digits = USINT2DECASCII_MAX_DIGITS - 1;
    for (uint8_t pos = 0; pos < 5; pos++)
    {
        digit = 0;
        while (num >= powers[pos])
        {
            digit++;
            num -= powers[pos];
        }
        if (digits == USINT2DECASCII_MAX_DIGITS - 1)
        {
            if (digit == 0)
            {
                if (pos < USINT2DECASCII_MAX_DIGITS - 1)
                    digit = -16;    // Use: "-16" for space (' ')
            }
            else
            {
                digits = pos;
            }
        }
        buffer[pos] = digit + '0';  // Convert to ASCII
    }
    return digits;
}

The code above was borrowed from another project – LCDDDD – and was slightly modified to fit our needs.

So, we use the usint2decascii function for the function owowod_print_numdec that will print an integer as a decimal number …

void owowod_print_numdec(uint16_t num) {
    char buffer[USINT2DECASCII_MAX_DIGITS + 1];
    buffer[USINT2DECASCII_MAX_DIGITS] = '\0';   // Terminate the string.
    uint8_t digits = usint2decascii(num, buffer);
    owowod_print_string(buffer + digits);
}

Here is an example of how to use the library …

#define OWOWOD_PORT PB3
#include "owowod.h"
int main(void)
{
    owowod_init();
    uint8_t num = 0;
    while (1) {
        owowod_print_numdecp(num);
        owowod_print_char('\n');
        owowod_print_char('\r');
        for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 95; i++) {
            owowod_print_char(' ' + i);
        }
        owowod_print_string("\n\r");
        owowod_print_string("Hello! How are you? Good-bye. :)\n\r");
        owowod_print_string("\n\r");
        _delay_ms(2000);
        num++;
    }
    return (0);
}

This library was developed while working on The Tinusaur but could be used with almost any other ATtiny85 or similar board or system

That’s all. 🙂

PREVIOUS PART 2: OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 2)

PREVIOUS PART 1: OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 1)

 

All the OWOWOD source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/tinusaur/owowod/src.

OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 2)

In my previous post “OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 1)” I wrote how to get a proper reference signal from a serial communication using USB-to-Serial TTL converter.

The Tinusaur BoardThe next steps are to generate the same signal but programmatically using the ATtiny85.

And this is what I did …

I used a ATtiny85 board, the Tinusaur – as you may have guessed already, connected with USBasp programmer to the computer.

The PB0 is used as output but any other available port could be used. That could be done by changing the OWOWOD_PORT in the source code below.

The output is connected to the second digital channel of my DSO Quad oscilloscope.

Here is a fragment of the code that generates the output sugnal …

#define OWOWOD_PORT	PB0	// OWOWOD Port

inline void owowod_init(void) {
	DDRB |= (1 << OWOWOD_PORT);	// Set port as output
	PORTB |= (1 << OWOWOD_PORT);	// Set to HIGH
}

#define OWOWOD_DELAY	23	// Delay for each bit

inline void owowod_delay(void) {
	for (uint8_t i = OWOWOD_DELAY; i != 0; i--) {
		asm volatile ("nop\n\t");
	}
}

void owowod_print_char(uint8_t c) {
	PORTB &= ~(1 << OWOWOD_PORT);	// Set to LOW
	owowod_delay();
	for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)
	{
		if (c & 1) {
			PORTB |= (1 << OWOWOD_PORT);	// Set to HIGH
		} else {
			PORTB &= ~(1 << OWOWOD_PORT);	// Set to LOW
		}
		owowod_delay();
		c = (c >> 1);
	}
	PORTB |= (1 << OWOWOD_PORT);	// Set to HIGH
	owowod_delay();
}

int main(void)
{
	owowod_init();
	while (1) {
		owowod_print_char(0x55); // "U"
	}
	return (0);
}

The owowod_init() function sets the port as output and its level to high which is the default for the serial communication.

The owowod_delay() function is a custom delay function that should produce a delay that is equivalent of 1 bit of serial data. This is just an empty loop that I experimentally determined how long it should be.

The owowod_print_char(uint8_t) function outputs one byte of data in serial – starting from the least significant bit of that byte.

To run the test I first started the COMStressTest program and let it output the “U” character (ASCII code in HEX 0x55) indefinitely.

IMPORTANT: All the tests were done with the default settings for the serial COM port which are 9600 bps, 8 bits of data, no parity check and 1 stop bit. This is sometimes denoted as 9600 / 8-N-1 configuration.

Then I ran the C program on the ATtiny.

The graphic on the oscilloscope looked like this …

Serial Debugging Oscilloscope

To get the two signals the same took of course some time to figure out what the timings (the delay between bits) should be.

I am now another step farther.

The next step will be to write a simple debugging library for printing strings and numbers.

PREVIOUS PART: OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 1)

NEXT PART: OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 3)

 

All the OWOWOD source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/tinusaur/owowod/src.

 

OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 1)

I always wanted to be able to write something like this in my code

 debugging_print("working, x=%i", x); 

… have that running on the micro-controller and see the debugging output on my computer.

The Problem

Unfortunately that is not easy – in fact not possible with the standard tools used to work with the ATtiny85. The problem is this: (1) those micro-controllers have too few I/O ports; and (2) most of the programmers (the one I’m using is USBasp) do not offer that kind of communication between the micro-controller and the computer, i.e. there is no 2-way communication.

There are many solutions to that problem and while looking on Internet I found this article http://www.ernstc.dk/arduino/tinycom.html that points to some of them:

Since the purpose of The Tinusaur Project is learning I decided to write my own.

USB to Serial TTL
USB to Serial TTL Converter

To do that I needed:

The USB-to-Serial TTL is a device that when connected to the USB port of the computer will look to the operating system like a Serial COM Port. Writing data to that COM port will result in transferring that data through the converter and out to the output pin called TxD – in serial form. It work similarly when receiving data from an external source of signal connected to the RxD pin.

I connected the PB0 of the ATtiny85 to the RxD of the USB-to-Serial TTL and did some experiments. Soon I realized that the timing of the signals was critical for this to work and I needed better way to compose the serial data.

Reference Character Generator

First thing – a serial data character generator that I can use as reference – and what could be better than an original USB-to-Serial converter.

I also needed a software that will generate sequence of test characters that I would use as a test signal. First I though of writing a simple Java program that will send the data to the COM port but then I found an application on Internet that does that already – COMStressTest from AGG Software at http://www.aggsoft.com/com-port-stress-test.htm.

COM Stress Test

I specified my testing data in the “Data source” tab as an external file.

The best testing sequence in this case would be string of “U” characters. This is because the generated signal will consist of equal LOW and HI intervals known also as square wave signal.

 ASCII "U" = 0x55 = 01010101 

To look more precisely at the signal form and parameters I used an oscilloscope – mine is DSO Quad from Seeedstudio at http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/DSO-Quad-4-Channel-Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope-p-736.html.

The signal should look like this …

Oscilloscope Serial Signal

That’s all for now.

The next step will be to write some code for the ATtiny that will generate the same sequence – all “U” character and try to make it exactly the same as the reference one.

IMPORTANT: All the tests were done with the default settings for the serial COM port which are 9600 bps, 8 bits of data, no parity check and 1 stop bit. This is sometimes denoted as 9600 / 8-N-1 configuration.

NEXT PART: OWOWOD – One Wire / One Way Output for Debugging the Tinusaur (Part 2)

 

All the OWOWOD source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/tinusaur/owowod/src.